Attention Centers on Crane Operators

By Graham Brent, Executive Director, NCCCO | September 28, 2010

 

Crane at work
Manufacturers have equipped cranes with more sophisticated controls, leaving too much at stake if left to untrained operators. Comprehensive training and third-party evaluation are a must.

Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.
Four Areas of Knowledge

 

NCCCO written test
NCCCO written test questions are grouped into four main areas, or domains:

  • Domain 1: Site
    For example, operators must know site hazards such as electric power lines and piping. They must know the proper use of mats, blocking or cribbing and outriggers or crawlers as they affect the suitability of supporting surfaces.
  • Domain 2: Operations
    Operators, for example, must know how to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers.
  • Domain 3: Technical Knowledge
    Examples include the knowledge of the effect of side loading, and the principles of backward stability.
  • Domain 4: Manufacturers' Load Charts
    Operators must know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.

The C-DAC Journey

In 2003, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration formed the Cranes & Derricks Advisory Committee (C-DAC) to overhaul 29CFR 1926.550, Subpart N, of its Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. The 119-page consensus document that the hand-picked committee of subject matter experts developed over a one-year period was submitted to OSHA for review after its last meeting in July 2004.

If its provisions are adopted, it will require crane operators to be certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization or qualified by an audited employer program. Similar provisions pertain to signal persons. The speed of issuance of any final rule will depend on whether a small business review will be required, and the degree of public comment the proposed rule, when published, elicits.


Four Tasks Determine Skill

Crane-operation tests
Crane-operation tests
CCO practical exams for construction cranes address three categories: lattice-boom cranes; telescopic-boom cranes below 17.5 tons with fixed cab, and above 17.5 tons with swing cab; and tower cranes.

They consist of four tasks that increase in the skill required:

  1. Place overhaul ball in stop circle.
  2. Follow hand signals.
  3. Place overhaul ball in barrels.
  4. Negotiate zigzag corridor with test weight.

Questions to Ask Your Training Vendor
  • Where and when are training classes held? Do you have to go to their site, or do they come to you?
  • How many hours does the training last? What's the cost?
  • How many instructors are certified or at least have passed the certification written examinations, and in what specialties?
  • What is the average class pass rate?
  • Does the training provider also offer practical exams?
  • Can the training provider offer a complete training and certification package by working in concert with the certification organization?

States That License (or plan to)
  • California
  • Colorado (2008?)
  • Connecticut
  • Hawaii
  • Massachusetts
  • Minnesota (2007)
  • Montana
  • Nevada
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania (2008?)
  • Rhode Island
  • Utah (2008?)
  • West Virginia

"It's 7 a.m. Do you know if your crane operators are qualified?"

Today, as never before, fleet managers are asking themselves this question (or variations of it) before they allow an operator to climb into the cab of one of their cranes. Over the past decade, the spotlight has truly turned full and square onto the subject of the qualifications of operators of construction equipment (and, in particular, cranes). And the related issues of certification and training have not been far behind.

Managers are realizing they can no longer rely merely on an operator's opinion of his or her ability to operate a particular piece of equipment before they roll it out of the yard. Even a supervisor's assessment may be suspect, particularly if he has little direct experience on cranes, or if he is relying largely (but quietly) on the operator's opinion as the basis of his own.

And while operator experience is vitally important (especially documented evidence of a safe track record), owners of cranes that today leave their manufacturers' assembly lines with an unprecedented array of sophisticated features providing unparalleled versatility are asking, "how relevant is the experience an operator may bring to a construction site to the particular operating characteristics of my machines?" Cranes have changed over the past decade as in none previous, and attitudes toward the qualifications of the person in the "hot seat" are shifting into top gear in an effort to catch up.

Of course, some companies have had effective crane operator evaluation programs in place for many years. But they are in the minority. And while the "cowboy mentality" persists in many parts of the country, the gradual realization that cranes are simply no longer built to take the brutal handling that has been a characteristic of the "good ol' boy" school of lift-equipment operation is contributing to a sea change in industry's approach to crane-operator qualifications.

There's simply too much at stake to continue making assumptions about a crane operator's ability to handle a crane safely in what is inherently a hazardous occupation. This is why more firms are investing in comprehensive training and independent, third-party evaluation. And for those who still view this financial outlay as a cost rather than an investment in the safety/productivity of their workplace, there is the added incentive of licensing requirements in a dozen states, including arguably the most populous (in crane terms), California.

Although a federal requirement may be in our future, the ASME B30.5 American National Standard for mobile and locomotive cranes laid the basis for operator qualifications more than a decade ago: Operators must meet physical standards, pass a written examination, and demonstrate their skill on a hands-on test. Specifically, the ASME B30.5 mobile-crane standard requires operators to "demonstrate their ability to read, write, comprehend, and exhibit arithmetic skills and load/capacity chart usage, in the language of the crane manufacturer's operation and maintenance materials."

If ever the case needed to be made for structured, professional training, load charts would be at the center. For load chart interpretation cannot come via osmosis or simply through prolonged exposure to crane operations; it has to be taught. Knowledgeable crane experts all agree: There is no more abused, misunderstood or just plain ignored aspect of mobile-crane operations than the crane's load chart, a fact the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO) can confirm based on its experience of administering more than 200,000 tests over a 10-year period. Without a thorough understanding of a mobile crane's load chart, an operator cannot have an accurate picture of either its capabilities or its limitations. Foolhardy indeed is the operator who ignores the rating chart in today's high-tech, versatile machines — his first mistake can indeed be his last.

The prospect of a federal mandate doesn't seem to be restraining state initiatives, however. Three states (California, Hawaii and New Jersey) have introduced licensing requirements in recent years, and a similar number (Minnesota, Nevada and Pennsylvania) have enacted laws or plan to do so. Others are contemplating draft legislation.

One feature all these new rules share is a desire to verify the quality of the licensing or certification process. A license is only as good as the process followed to develop the examinations used to test crane-operator knowledge and skill. A "certified" operator may be no more competent than an uncertified operator if the certification consists of little more than, say, a 20-question true/false test, with coaching in the correct answers provided by the instructor. It's often pointed out that barbers have to be licensed in most states, yet crane operators most often do not. But how comfortable would you feel sitting in the chair of a practitioner certified by the Sweeney Todd Training Institute?

That's why, more than 30 years ago, an audit process for organizations that certify personnel was developed by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA). NCCA has since been joined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in providing a means of accreditation to certifying bodies such as the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO). Both the CCO mobile/tower crane operator certification programs are accredited by NCCA.

Compliance with the detailed psychometric and management system requirements of NCCA or ANSI ensures the certification issued by an accredited organization has been professionally developed and administered to the highest standards, and that the tests used during the examination process are fair, valid, reliable and (just as importantly) legally defensible.

Training and professionally developed certification (or licensing) can be a powerful "one-two punch" in the effort to ensure all equipment operators are qualified. The effectiveness of this winning combination has been most clearly seen in recent years in the Canadian province of Ontario. Between 1969 and 1978, crane and rigging fatalities in the province accounted for almost 20 percent of all construction fatalities. This rate has more than halved since then. Accounting for this remarkable improvement has been the introduction in 1979 of mandatory training for all crane operators as a part of the licensing process.

There is every reason to expect a similar result in the United States, but only if the various mandatory and voluntary means of becoming certified follow professional methods of exam development and, thereby, stimulate the need for training. Since the introduction of its national mobile crane operator certification program in 1996, the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO) has witnessed a veritable explosion in the training available to crane operators.

Although NCCCO does not provide training (in order to preserve its third-party, independent status as a certification organization), it maintains on its website a list of firms that do. In 1996 there was one firm listed; at last count there were 60 from 21 states, 47 of which operate nationwide. And the number is growing almost daily. Add to that the train-the-trainer classes often used by firms wishing to develop in-house programs, and the opportunities for training have never been greater.

The decision on whether or not employers need to provide training is, of course, one that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, industry standards, and just plain good sense has already made. If good sense is enough for some, others may need the "carrot" offered by the insurance industry's premium discounts for certified operators, or the "stick" that state or federal licensing may provide. Either way, training and certification of crane operators is here to stay. And that's a good thing — not just for those working in/around lifting equipment, but for all those whose lives may be temporarily, or permanently, affected by the often devastating consequences of a machine operated by an untrained, uncertified, inexperienced — and therefore unqualified — crane operator.

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